Acne is a common skin disease characterized by pimples on the face, chest, and back. It occurs when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria.1
Causes and Symptoms ₍₁₎
- Age. Due to the hormonal changes they experience, teenagers are more likely to develop acne.
- Gender. Boys have more severe acne and develop it more often than girls.
- Disease. Hormonal disorders can complicate acne in girls.
- Heredity. Individuals with a family history of acne have greater susceptibility to the disease.
- Hormonal changes. Acne can flare up before menstruation, during pregnancy, and menopause.
- Diet. No foods cause acne, but certain foods may cause flare-ups.
- Drugs. Acne can be a side effect of drugs including tranquilizers, antidepressants, antibiotics, oral contraceptives, and anabolic steroids.
- Personal hygiene. Abrasive soaps, hard scrubbing, or picking at pimples will make them worse.
- Cosmetics. Oil-based makeup and hair sprays worsen acne.
- Environment. Exposure to oils and greases, polluted air, and sweating in hot weather aggravate acne.
- Stress. Emotional stress may contribute to acne.
Acne treatment consists of reducing sebum production, removing dead skin cells, and killing bacteria with topical drugs and oral medications. Treatment choice depends upon whether the acne is mild, moderate, or severe.